# 1st Grade

## Common Core Standards

## ELA Standards

### Reading

**Reading: Literature**

**Reading: Literature**

**Key Ideas and Details**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.1.1**

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.1.2**

Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.1.3**

Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

**Craft and Structure**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.1.4**

Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.1.5**

Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.1.6**

Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.

**Integration of Knowledge and Ideas**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.1.7**

Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.1.8**

(RL.1.8 not applicable to literature)

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.1.9**

Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.

**Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.1.10**

With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1.

**Reading: Informational Text**

**Reading: Informational Text**

**Key Ideas and Details:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.1**

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.2**

Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.3**

Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

**Craft and Structure:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.4**

Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.5**

Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.6**

Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.

**Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.7**

Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.

Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.9**

Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

**Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.10**

With prompting and support, read informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1.

**Reading: Foundational Skills**

**Reading: Foundational Skills**

**Print Concepts:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.1**

Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.1.A**

Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation).

**Phonological Awareness:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.2**

Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.2.A**

Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.2.B**

Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.2.C**

Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.2.D**

Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).

**Phonics and Word Recognition:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3**

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3.A**

Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3.B**

Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3.C**

Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3.D**

Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3.E**

Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3.F**

Read words with inflectional endings.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3.G**

Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

**Fluency:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.4**

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.4.A**

Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.4.B**

Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.4.C**

Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

**Writing**

**Writing**

**Text Types and Purposes:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.1**

Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.2**

Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.3**

Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

**Production and Distribution of Writing:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.4**

(W.1.4 begins in grade 3)

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.5**

With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.6**

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

**Research to Build and Present Knowledge:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.7**

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of "how-to" books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions).

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.8**

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.9**

(W.1.9 begins in grade 4)

**Range of Writing:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.10**

(W.1.10 begins in grade 3)

### Speaking and Listening

**Comprehension and Collaboration:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.1**

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about *grade 1 topics and texts* with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.1.A**

Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.1.B**

Build on others' talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.1.C**

Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.2**

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.3**

Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood.

**Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.4**

Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.5**

Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.6**

Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 1 Language standards 1 and 3 here for specific expectations.)

### Language

**Conventions of Standard English:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.1**

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.1.A**

Print all upper- and lowercase letters.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.1.B**

Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.1.C**

Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.1.D**

Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything).

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.1.E**

Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.1.F**

Use frequently occurring adjectives.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.1.G**

Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., *and, but, or, so, because*).

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.1.H**

Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.1.I**

Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., *during, beyond, toward*).

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.1.J**

Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.2**

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.2.A**

Capitalize dates and names of people.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.2.B**

Use end punctuation for sentences.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.2.C**

Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.2.D**

Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.2.E**

Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.

**Knowledge of Language:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.3**

(L.1.3 begins in grade 2)

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use:**

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.4**

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on *grade 1 reading and content*, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.\

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.4.A**

Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.4.B**

Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.4.C**

Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., *look*) and their inflectional forms (e.g., *looks, looked, looking*).

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.5**

With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.5.A**

Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.5.B**

Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a *duck* is a bird that swims; a *tiger* is a large cat with stripes).

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.5.C**

Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are *cozy*).

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.5.D**

Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., *look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl*) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.

**CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.1.6**

Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., *because*).

## Math Standard

### Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.A.1**

Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.^{1}

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.A.2**

Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.B.3**

Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.^{2} *Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.)*

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.B.4**

Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. *For example, subtract 10 - 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.*

Add and subtract within 20.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.C.5**

Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.C.6**

Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 - 4 = 13 - 3 - 1 = 10 - 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 - 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).

Work with addition and subtraction equations.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.D.7**

Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 - 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.D.8**

Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. *For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = _ - 3, 6 + 6 = _*.

^{1} See Glossary, Table 1

^{2} Students need not use formal terms for these properties.

### Numbers and Operations in Base Ten

Extend the counting sequence.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.NBT.A.1**

Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral.

Understand place value.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.NBT.B.2**

Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases:

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.NBT.B.2.A**

10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones â€” called a "ten."

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.NBT.B.2.B**

The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.NBT.B.2.C**

The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.NBT.B.3**

Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.NBT.C.4**

Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.NBT.C.5**

Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.NBT.C.6**

Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 from multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

### Measurement and Data

Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.A.1**

Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.A.2**

Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. *Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps*.

Tell and write time.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.B.3**

Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks.

Represent and interpret data.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.C.4**

Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.

### Geometry

Reason with shapes and their attributes.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.G.A.1**

Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes.

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.G.A.2**

Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.^{1}

**CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.G.A.3**

Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words *halves*, *fourths*, and *quarters*, and use the phrases *half of*, *fourth of*, and *quarter of*. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares.

^{1} Students should apply the principle of transitivity of measurement to make indrirect comparisons, but they need not use this technical term.